Response to Poetry

from Ms. Lester:

Answer each question in paragraph format of  in 7-9 sentences.   Please do not number your paragraphs; you may create a heading (i.e. “Question 1) and then compose your paragraph.

  1. What does the controlling metaphor in Donne’s Meditation 17 mean: “No man is an island…”?
  2. What is Donne’s call to action for humanity in this poem?
  3. According to Kipling, and in your own words, what was the “White Man’s Burden”?
  4. What reward did Kipling suggest the “White Man” gets for carrying his “burden”?
  5. Who did Kipling think would read his poem? What do you think that this audience might have said in response to it? How do you respond to this message as a 21st century reader today?

44 comments on “Response to Poetry

  1. Bryce S. 4th says:

    No man is completely alone. We are all connected to each other. It could be by family ties or through friendships, but we all have ties to someone else. Therefore, we are not the only ones that suffer from our consequences. Our decisions affect others as well. We have to account for our actions; we do not just answer to ourselves but to those we hurt. In the same sense, when we are happy, our peers around us are happy.
    Do the right thing. Take account for your actions. We are not alone in this world; we share it with billions of people. We humans should be making morally sound decisions. If we ignore the line between right and wrong, we are sure to cross it. For those people that think they can escape justice and continue harming our society, they will have to face their sins in the end. It is our job as humans to help one another in this struggle called life and not take advantage of it.
    I have no idea what the White Man’s Burden is. It could be anything, really. I guess if I had to really think about it, it would probably be our lack of a sense of morality. In this day and age, society is taking a turn for the worse. We do many things that we once considered wrong and lie to ourselves that it is okay. That’s what I believe, anyway. How can we live on a society driven by people who know they make wrong decisions and still do nothing to change it? And part of it is our fault for allowing this to happen.
    The “reward”-if you can call it that-is a carefree yet unfulfilled life. A life filled with no regrets or remorse for the horrible deeds they have done. A life undeserving of happiness or good fortune. It is a cheater’s life, a liar’s life. A sinner’s life. That is no reward, because in the end, the White Man will spend an eternity in Hell. No, it is a punishment for those who thought they could live outside God’s expectations.
    Kipling probably expected adults to read his poem. Those who were guilty of the White Man’s Burden. His audience might have become furious at him, angry that he had caught them at their game. Or they could not realize he is talking about them. Still others might come to terms with their wrongful actions and choose to repent. I have to agree with him. People today are manipulative, greedy, and corrupt. They put down the weak in order to give themselves a better chance at success. As a Christian, I hate to see that.

  2. solano87764 says:

    To me, this metaphor means that no man is left behind. No man is left alone, or abandoned. This also strikes me as something that a religious speaker would say. Like they aren’t spiritually alone, and they always have someone to guide them along the path of life. I believe he is asking us to include everyone in this life, so that no one is categorized as an island. I think that he is saying that we should all make some new friends, or be kinder to one another so that everyone has a place, and will not be secluded or separated from the rest of humanity. The White Man’s Burden, I believe, is a personification that is asking humans in general to live life to the fullest. Therefore, by doing things to their greatest ability, and always try and achieve the peak of greatness to their standards. The poem explains that “since the days of classical Greece, a laurel wreath has been a symbolic victory prize”. I don’t really understand this statement; therefore, I cannot give an accurate description to what this prize is, other than the quote from the poem. Maybe he thought that a man or woman with low spirit could take his poem and maybe feel a lot better about themselves. Or maybe encourage them to get back into life with full force. My response to this poem is quite positive. I believe that this excerpt is a great poem, and a wonderful thing to analyze and study in class.

  3. Alexandra C says:

    Donne means that no man is separate from everyone; that he is part of a larger whole. No man can be completely separate because everyone’s lives are interwoven. Each person can be connected in six steps to anyone in the world. The individual is part of a whole, in spirit and in person. The spirit is connected by their personal gods; be they catholic, jewish, hindu, cristian, or any other religion. Everyone is together, not separate; everyone is part of a contenant, not an island. Everyones’ deaths and births affect everyone in some way. No one can be truly alone, ever, in our present society. There are always cars, family, visitors, friends, enemies. Everyone is connected to the world.
    His call to action is that being saved by the catholic God is the only security. He calls for everyone who will one day hear the bells to be saved. Hearing the bells is symbolic of death approaching t last. He wants everyone to be not miserable for ourselves but for our neightbors, to share and share alike. He wants everyone to get along, to give to each other. He wants everyone to share their money and things, for what good is ammased wealth with no joy in it? He wants humanity to actually have humanity, and to love God. He finds the sickness to bring people closer to heaven, but for all to be affected by this.
    In Kipling’s words, the White Man’s burden is the “savage wars of peace.” The white man tries to get everyone to quit fighting wars by making wars and enslaving people. White men try to control everything to make it all perfect. They cause famines and deaseas by destroying crops to make the other side surrender, causing pain and misery. Then they have their goals thwarted by “sloth and heather Folly.” The white men make slaves of people, willingly or not, in name or not. The others must work to help our goals, otherwise they will be threatened as well.
    The white man is hated byt hose protected, because they feel they can look after themselves. Those that are defeated and are bitter, blaming for all their problems. Those that are “humoured” are indignant, for who likes to have their ways changed by outsiders who interfere? The white man is surrounded by “silent, sullen peoples,” the ones that were helped and hurt. The white man sticks his nose too often where it doesn’t belong, always playing hero. The white man does not look upon play and games well, offering peace to all. Those that answered the call have tuned hard and cold, sometimes with night terrors, and have gained wisdom through much sacrifice. Their peers judge harshly, those that give up their ways.
    Kipling thought the masses of peoples, his peoples, would read his poem. I think his audience would have thought this as a call to arms, maybe to help the Whites, but more likely to throw them off, because they end result cost too dearly. The present audience would be appaled by this. What normal person would want to read about children that are half demon? They would be disgusted by how they would have to act, how they had to follow the white man. They would realize, maybe for the first time, what war actually does. They would discover how people resent, how they bear grudges. This is not a pleasant poem to read for everyday people, and anyone who actually understands it would be likely moved.

  4. macynicole says:

    Question One- In Donne’s Meditation 17, he expresses a statement that is bold and is majorly expressed through life today. The quote “No man is an island…” tells you that you are never alone. An island is a place that is deserted around waters. What I comprehended from this statement was that even though troubles might be hard you will always have family, friends, and other loved ones surrounding you. Also no one is isolated from the world we live in today. Everyone has choices in their life and it seems to me that the people that are surrounding you are the ones that influence your choice. In today’s society depression has hit hardcore on our surrounding people that we see today. It goes to show you that having people surround you with love will help your life and support you all the way. You will never be a lonely island.

    Question Two- In this passage Donne’s humanity of life plays a huge part. For example he quotes “when one man dies, one chapter is torn out of the book, but translated into a better language…” This shows you that Donne thinks that every single person impacts this world in some way. The words he says in this meditation are so kind and it’s like he thinks about every single person on this Earth. Although Donne speaks so greatly upon everyone in our society, it is for us to think like he thinks. In today’s society almost everyone judges someone by the way they look, if we took the time to get to know them and look at some of their views in their prospective, I think we would get a lot further in life. Maybe this is what John Donne is trying to tell us.

    Question Three- In Kipling’s poem “The White Man’s Burden” it expresses to you that not everyone is understanding as you might be. The poem is about how the white men want to take over Africans and show them how to do the things they do. In my opinion is was almost like they wanted to rule the world. They wanted everyone else to think and do just like them. I feel like it was unjustly and that people shouldn’t live their lives like someone else. Although in the above question I did state it would be good to live a life like John Donne and really take in common humanity. What I mean is why live your life and do something if you don’t want to do it. The White Man’s Burden feels to me like they wanted to control something that they didn’t have.

    Question Four- In Kipling’s poem “The White Man’s Burden” he states that if you complete your burden it will bring wisdom and good judgment of your peers. Although in their years they try bring upon other people to do the things they do. The burden is supposed to bring you good fortune. In my opinion I think that if you try to put something on another person, it should bring you bad fortune. When you live your life today, think about how good it is that you have the freedom to think for yourself and live the life that you want to live. It’s amazing that we have those types of opportunities; I wish that back then they had the same as we do today!

    Question Five- I think in Kipling’s poem he thought that the African Americans would have read it and thought that they needed to do what the White men were doing. In my opinion I feel that they would have brushed it off their shoulders and not have done what they white men wanted them to do. I also think that they would have maybe created a poem of their own and told the white man what they wanted them to do for them. As a 21st century reader today I believe that it was really unfair that they white men would try to change the minds of other people.

  5. Justin P. says:

    Question 1: The metaphor “No man is an island, …..” means that not just one person can stand alone and govern or control. In the world today, everyone needs each and every ones help to get something done. There is no continent that has one rule. The worlds becomes more diverse in the fact that not one person rules all. Our neighbors, family, friends, and co-workers all have a contribution and without more people to give ideas this should not be called Earth.

    Question 2: Donnes call is to all the citizens and people in the world. He believes all people no mater which continent they derive from can help and make a difference to the world. God has the ability to unite all the different races into one, he can bring the world together. He thinks that one day people won’t choose someone because of money. They will appreciate the actual quality of the person.

    Question 3: I believe that the White Man’s Burden is the whole white race. Kippling says that the white race is so cruel and harsh. Yet he only basis this assumption on what few things he has seen in his life. He talks about death, the terror, and cruelty of the white race. He does not mention once the good things that whites have done to the world. Although we do take people land, kill, and make war, we still have many good qualities.

    Question 4: I think the reward Kippling suggests is the appreciation of you friends. If a man is to carry on his burden he can attain happiness from the peers. Though the road to keep your burden is tough it pays off int he long run. Some obstacles mentioned are wars, disrespect, and sickness caused by not fulfilling your job on the earth. If you were to overcome the countless years of no thanks or appreciation, you may attain wisdom and respect from others.

    Question 5: I think Kippling directed this poem towards the white male race. No matter the age this is the burden they shall carry the rest of their lives. The response may have questioned his thoughts on earth. He is very narrow minded that all people carry the same purpose on the earth to kill and make people sad. But once again he just disregards the up side on white man’s life. This message does not bother me at all. There are so many views on subjects I have learned to just ignore them and take one as the right way. Other countries have hatred towards white men, but it is acceptable since we have cause terror in the world for hundreds of years.

  6. wright53628 says:

    Question 1
    The statement “no man is an island” can mean many different things. Such as, no one is separated throughout the world. Everyone is connected somehow. Everyone in the world must depend on one another for different tasks. No one can make it through life alone. Humans cannot thrive in life without one another’s help. Isolation is not the key to a healthy lifestyle.

    Question 2
    The call to action in the Meditation is saying everyone needs to help one another. Again, no one can live life alone. I was always taught to treat others the way you want to be treated. Everyone in the world is suppost to lend a helping hand when called upon. If humanity tried to do it on their own, then the world would be a pretty messed up place. The world is a very cruel place, and you cannot survive it alone. There are many things in this world a body of people cannot survive, how would someone single-handedly survive it?

    Question 3
    According to Kipling, ‘the white man’s burden’ is saying how can the white men help the world, when they cannot help themselves. I believe Kipling said it perfect. It is true about the U.S. We spend so much money trying to help the rest of the world, when we cannot even deal with our own problems. Sometimes leaders of countries get way in over their heads when dealing with problems. They usually put everyone else’s difficulties in front of their own.

    Question 4
    Kipling is saying when you help someone; you cannot always expect something in return. Everyone in life helps one another. Everyone in life usually expects something in return. It is pretty sad how this is. Kipling is saying in is kind of pointless to help someone, if you always expect something in return. It would be nice to always receive something, but it’s not that way. Like my mom always says “it is better to give, than to receive.”

    Question 5
    Kipling hoped the people of the United States would read the poem. There were probably a lot of mixed feelings about the poem composed by Kipling. I can see some people getting very angry with it. In contrast, I can see many people agreeing with him. I think this is a very good poem. It is very well-thought-out, and very deep. Kipling sounds very educated and his poem really reflects his brilliance.

    Brandon Wright

  7. Sloan A. 4th says:

    The metaphor “No man is an island…” is a symbolic message in Meditation 17 by John Donne. The symbolic meaning of the metaphor to me is that no man can live in isolation. I got the message from using geography vocabulary. I knew that an island was isolated from other land mass, so I figured that John Donne was comparing human nature to an island. The human nature is made of very special, reoccurring events. If you think about it people have been surrounded with other people since day one of the creation of earth. Also, everyone in the human nature lives off of each other’s ideas and emotions. If people were isolated and lived on their own the world would be a very different place. To sum up, if the world were islolated everyone would not be as loving and understanding because we would not understand each other.

    In Meditation 17 by John Donne, Donne calls an action for his readers. The action I got out of the meditation is that humanity needs to call upon God to end their suffering. The suffering of people is a very hard thing for many to get over but not all people believe God is the answer. For example, many people all over the world believe in worshiping the earth and everything in it. Most likely they would not pray to God to end their sufferings, but rather something else. On the other hand, many people all over the world are now turning to not believing gods at all. Some of these people may start to abuse something to end their suffering. Also, some people who even to believe in God or gods may rather turn to a substance to relieve them from their suffering. In conclusion, the belief that God will end all’s suffering is a theory that many are starting to not believe in anymore.

    In the White Man’s Burden by Rudyard Kipling there is an obvious burden that Kipling believes the white men should complete. The white man’s burden is for the white men to govern the nonwhite people. Many white men did take part in this task. The most common way to completing the burden was to set up colonies in other countries. While these white men where in these countries, they converted the natives to believe in what they did. The white men also taught the natives how to speak their language and informed the natives that their view and beliefs were wrong. During this time period the white men thought their language and beliefs were superior to the natives. All in all, the white men of these times thought that their views and beliefs were right and everyone else’s were wrong.

    Rudyard Kipling proposes that there is a reward for helping the nonwhite people in The White Man’s Burden. The reward that I think Kipling is suggesting come from the following quote, “Take up the White Man’s burden–And reap his old reward: The blame of those ye better, The hate of those ye guard– The cry of hosts ye humour (Ah, slowly!) toward the light: — ‘Why brought he us from bondage, Our loved Egyptian night?’” The quote is informing the white men that the native/nonwhite people will not like the white men for coming and taking over their land. Therefore, the natives will not appreciate all the white men have “given” them. Kipling then states that the white men should understand the natives/nonwhite people are really thanking them. As a result, the thanking of the white men unacknowledged duty. In summary, Kipling is revealing to the white men that they should be proud and honored to help these “poor”, “under privileged” people.

    Kipling wrote the poem The White Man’s Burden for many different white men. Mrs. Lester informed our class the Kipling wrote the poem especially for the white male citizens of the Untied States. He did this because he was suggesting that the United States take part in this heroic event. Kipling’s plan was for the United States to help even more “poor”, “under privileged” people. The United States obviously did not start any colonies in Africa like many of the other well-known countries, but the did start colonies in other parts of the world. Kipling’s poem was also spread to many other white men declaring their involvement with helping out the nonwhite people. On a whole, Kipling wanted many other white men to fulfill their called duty.

  8. Ashley P. says:

    Many metaphors are used in the poem Meditation XVII, by John Donne. One of the most significant ones is “No man is an island, entire of itself; every man is a piece of continent, a part of the main.” I think this part of the metaphor means that humans need companions to live because they cannot on their own. Donne could also mean that all people are connected in some way. The second part to the metaphor is “If a clod be washed away by the sea, Europe is the less, as well as if a promontory were, as well as if a manor of thy friend’s or of thine own were: any man’s death diminishes me, because I am involved in mankind, and therefore never send to know for whom the bells tolls; it tolls for thee.” I believe that this part of the metaphor means that if one person in a community passes or moves away, it affects everyone. It could also mean that one should always feel remorse when someone leaves, no matter how close that person was to her. This relates to the first reason in that you should have emotions because their absence will affect you in some way.
    In this poem, Donne’s call to humanity is to do all things in the name of God. He says, “If by this consideration of another’s danger I take mine own into contemplation, and so secure myself, by making my recourse to my God, who is our only security.” Here I believe that he says nothing else in our life should matter next to God. I also think he is saying that if you do something wrong, ask for God’s forgiveness because that is what will matter in the end. When he says, “Truly it were an excusable covetousness if we did, for affliction is a treasure, and scarce any man hath of it,” he could mean several things. One thing I think he meant by this statement is that you should always look on the bright side of things, even if you’re in pain. Also, I think he could have meant that something good always comes out of something bad. In his case, he could mean that instead of worrying about dying, he can look forward to going to Heaven and being with God.
    According to Kipling, the “White Man’s Burden” is to take care of the less fortunate. I think that this is what he means because he says, “Take up the White man’s burden, The savage wars of peace, Fill full the mouth of Family, And bid the sickness cease.” In the case of this poem, I have to agree with Kipling. It certainly makes it seem like the white man’s burden is to try and bring the poor up to a higher level. He makes it seem like a burden when he says, “And when your goal is nearest, The end for others sought, Watch sloth and heathen Folly, Bring all your hopes to nought.” It seems as if the white people are making many sacrifices for the natives, even though they are not obliged to. In the poem, Kipling says, “Send forth the best ye breed, Go bind your sons to exile, To serve your captives’ need.” I believe this means that the white people sacrificed all of their strongest men and boys to go work for the natives. However, many of their lives were lost.
    Kipling suggested that the white man do not get a reward for their burden. When he says “Took seek another’s profit, And work another’s gain,” it makes me feel as if the white men are working for nothing. Although this might not be true, it is possible that the less fortunate people are taking them for granted. I think this means that the white men are working in the other countries to try and make them more successful, hoping that they might be a part of it and be rewarded. However, they end up just working for the country and not receiving anything. In the poem, Kipling says, “The blame of those ye better, The hate of those ye guard, The cry of hosts ye humour, (Ah, slowly!) toward the light: ‘Why brought he us from bondage, Our loved Egyptian night?’” I think that this means all the white men get for their hard work is hatred and resentment from the natives.
    Kipling probably thought that citizens of his country would read his poem. I think the audience would have responded in a negative manner. I believe this because in his poem, Kipling did not say many positive things about what the white men were doing. Therefore, his audience could not have wanted to continue this work. As a 21st century reader, I think that it was nice of the white men to try and help the natives. However, I think the reason they did it was wrong. I believe that they should have helped them to benefit the natives and only the natives, not themselves. Therefore, I think that it is only fair that they were not rewarded for their work.

  9. Austin D. says:

    Question 1. “No man is an island” this metaphor compares man to an island. Saying that no man is as a great as an island alone. “every man is a piece of the continent”. He is saying that everyman is part of one whole the continent. One man’s actions affect the whole continent. “any man’s death diminishes me, because I am involved in mankind.” This also goes back to one man’s actions affecting everyone else and that we are all one.
    Question 2. Donne’s call to action for humanity in this poem is that no man is greater than any other man. All men are equal no matter if they’re dying sick, or rich and famous. I was kind of confused about the rest.
    Question 3. The white man’s burden was to stop the wars and come to peace. To get rid of sickness and poverty. For there to be no bad kings or trespassers. Kipling is basically trying to tell everyone that he wants world peace and happiness.
    Question 4. Kipling suggested that the ‘white man’ gets “the blame of those ye better, the hate of those ye guard—the cry of hosts ye humour toward the light.” “Why he brought us from bondage our loved Egyptian night?”
    Question 5: I think that Kipling would’ve wanted the U.S. government and the rest of the world to read this. As he states in the poem I think he would’ve wanted the U.S and the world to change their ways of living. I think that some people would’ve agreed with him on this but others would’ve thought he was crazy. I find it hard to respond to because I am having trouble understanding it completely and thoroughly. I am a little confused with the way it is written and how the words were used.

  10. Eric Rhonehouse says:

    ” No man is an island” means that a man is not alone. It means that others are with him because he is part of a continent. He is part of a group. He is part of a community or society. It means that a man can share his burden with others for help. It symbolizes the function and relationship of individuals to the community.

    Donne’s call to action for humanity is for all of us to band together, and To have a common about us. We somehow need something that unites us everyday. Like the bell, that tolls for everyone even though they don’t think about it. Humanity needs to join into a single unit. He calls for a common for humanity such as the Catholic church, because when a child gets baptized it becomes a part of him. Also if a member dies it effects a part of him. The church, in this case, is being the unifying common.

    The White Man’s Burden is a poetic statement of the beliefs of many colonizers. The White Man’s Burden is audacious and egotistic point of view. The burden, in the poem, is the burden of caring for a people that they think can not take care of themselves. It is the insolent belief that one race is less menial than another. It is the thought that shaped a colonized world. It sees the Africans as savages who don’t know any better and therefore are inferior and need to be changed. The “burden” also thinks it can seize the land because of the inferiority.

    The rewards are resources. The rewards are verbal and physical. Apparently they will get rewarded by praise for converting and upholding these colonies. They will be rewarded by rich resources that allow them to grow and prosper. They will rape and pillage a land held so dearly to a native peoples.

    Kipling’s poem could have been directed to white colonists or it could have been directed to black natives. Whites could have read it because it made them feel accomplished and proud. Kipling could have been telling black natives the white mans burden so they would be more grateful and submissive. Apparently that didn’t work. Another group he could have been directing this poem to were the white non-colonists in England. The reason he would direct it to them is so they would see the good that has come out of colonizing and perhaps be persuaded to send more people or more supplies in order to help build and maintain white dominance.

  11. Question 1
    I think the metaphor, “No man is an island, entire of itself;” by John Donne is a powerful metaphor. It compares mankind to the entirety of the continents. No man can be by himself, just like a continent can’t be by itself. All people are affected by the people surrounding them. They are like a continent that is big and dependent on the entirety of it. Together, mankind forms a whole. No one can brake off and be a hermit, and even hermits are affected by other people. Overall, humans have to depend on each other not matter what their race, color, ethnicity, or religion is.

    Question 2
    John Donne is calling to all humans to start paying attention. They need to start being aware of other people and respecting their differences and ideas. Most people are oblivious to the gifts they have been given. If a person dies that they don’t know, they think nothing of it. While we might not know the people, we should still give a second in our day to respect them. Time flies by so fast. People should take the time to think about what’s important to them, and start acting on that.

    Question 3
    Rudyard Kipling’s idea of the White Man’s burden was the colonization of all other people. He believed that the white man’s way of doing things was the correct way. Therefore, all white men should be obligated to educate the people whose ways are not the white man’s ways. It is their duty to their race and to themselves to go forth and to convert the “savages” into proper gentlemen and women.White man are the superior race. They are the reason that civilized culture even exists. It doesn’t matter how much other people suffer, the White Man’s burden compels him to complete his duty not matter what.

    Question 4

    The rewards that Kipling states in his poem are many. He says that if white men take up the White Man’s burden, then they will no longer be a child. By taking up this burden they have entered into manhood.They are now men. Also he thinks that through the years of changing the “savages”, white men will come into wisdom. They will be a wiser person and their peers will respect and admire them. Another prize was that they will have a sense of accomplishment. The white man will have had a personal victory.

    Question 5
    I believe that Kipling was writing for an English audience. I think that he wanted to make a favorable impression on the people that mattered the most, and therefore, wrote what their ideas would be. I think that his audience would have agreed with him. In his time, it was the British Empire’s pride to have expanded so much, and to have “civilized” the native peoples. Kipling’s audience would have looked upon this poem with admiration. However, I personally thing that Kipling was being arrogant. One race is not superior to another race just because of their culture or beliefs. Also, it was not just Kipling. It was the entire British Empire at the time. I believe that all people are the same not matter what their cultural beliefs are.

  12. buelow53675 says:

    Question 1
    I believe that the metaphor “No man is an island” is more of a generally statement of fact rather than a saying targeted to a specific group. In my opinion, it gives the idea of unity, on a personal level; it states that no one person is more important than another. That being said, it also means that every person is needed in their own importance to function together. On a group basis, it gives the idea of centrality, the fact that everyone as a whole is central to the founding of society. Without centrality, people doubt themselves in the group and will cease to think as a group, therefore breaking up this “island”. Without centrality, the group looses the vision of itself as significant, and therefore will loose that idea of togetherness and unity. Doubling on this meaning, a single person also, can’t be alone and function by themselves; they need the society as a whole, and that society needs them.
    Question 2
    From what I perceive, the main central theme of this poem seems to be centrality. And from looking more into the poem, it also appears to me that this author is trying to convey the message to humanity that they need to come together, and be as one. A primary example of this would be the comparison with the island. Another would be the assertion with the “universal catholic church”, more specifically when the main character is talking about how he is affected by every baptism and every death, and talks as if they are one. Yet another depiction is when we are described as books in the hands of God. We will be translated though experiences, and eventually, will “lie open to one another”. It seems that the author is concerned that humanity is not being as a whole, and could suffer the consequences.
    Question 3
    The “burden”as it is called could be a number of things. The poem never mentions anything specific, but based on the past of Africa, it can assumed to be a precious mineral or element, like Diamond or Gold. However, since there is nothing specific mentioned, other options are still debatable. In a manner of speaking, the poem could be referring to something different, maybe not as harsh as mining, but another laborious activity that in which the natives were used. The poem could have referred to the manner in which they were treated and separated from the rest of society. Another possibility could be how some of them are forced to live in home-made shacks while the other settlers get to live in a fancy house. Anything that could be called a “burden” is a complete possibility for this time.
    Question 4
    It seems that the white man gets only benefits for others carrying his “burden”. Specifically, they get better infrastructure like roads and ports. And while the other slaves are forced to make all of these luxurious extras for the white men, they are not allowed to enjoy the benefits of their hard labor themselves. And although they hope to seek a profit though all of the work that they do, instead they end up only “working another’s gain”. They also suffer for working; they are forced to “send out the best they breed/ to serve your captives’ needs”. It seems that in this reality, there is no real way for the slaves to gain anything from this, and it will all be for the advantage of the white people.
    Question 5
    I personally don’t think that there is any particular age group or race that is targeted by the poem. It seems that this is more of a poem to promote some more world awareness about this particular topic. In response, I think some people would be appalled at the very idea of this horrific topic. Others just simply wouldn’t care. It unfortunately shows the bad way in which the world is currently in, the fact that most of the population doesn’t seem troubled by this. My personal response to this is another train of though. Thinking of this as what it would be for them, ad how lucky our society today that we are free to gain what we wish, while working for our benefit, and not others.

  13. benmcfarlin says:

    I think that Donne’s quote means that people can not be successful in life without the support of people around them. Although I don’t agree with the majority of Donne’s poem, I agree with this statement. The way that people are able to make great accomplishments is to be able to fall back on their friends and family members for support. Without these people a person is left all alone. This is clearly true in life as well, where people who have a lot of friends are clearly happier that those who tend to isolate themselves from other people.

    I wasn’t really sure what Donne’s call to action was. By the context of the poem though, I think that he is calling on the “civilized” world to “save” those people that he sees as inferior. I think that he is saying that there are many people and civilizations that need to adopt the way of life in which Donne lived. He may think that he is trying to be helpful, however he is only showing his ignorance. Without the right knowledge of how the people that he thinks are inferior live, he can’t truly make statements as to how they would be better off. He is messing with a matter that he doesn’t know enough about.

    Kipling suggests that the “White Man’s Burden” is to convert the people that he sees as inferior not only to Christianity, but also to a way of life that he sees as acceptable. He suggests that it is a burden because he sees it as something that the white men must do for the natives because they aren’t capable of creating a quality standard of living for themselves. He basically says that the white men must provide for other people because they can’t care for themselves. Some of the things that he says that the white men must do are to stop famine, stop wars, and to do various other things that he wrote because of his ignorance of their way of life.

    Although he doesn’t grasp the idea that white men aren’t required to help other ideas, he does understand that those he “helps” will be ungrateful. He essentially says that the “White Man’s Burden” is a thankless job. He says that they will “hate”, “blame”, and pretty much regret the White men’s help. I don’t understand why he still thinks it is necessary to help those people if he even realizes that they don’t want his help. I don’t think that Kipling was a dumb person, he sounds like a smart person, just ignorant on this specific topic. However, near the end of the poem, he talks about “the judgement of your peers.” I think that he means that although the people that he helps will regret it, that his fellow white men will agree that it was a necessary task.

    I think that Kipling wrote this poem to not only inform people of what the white man must do, but also to belittle the people he intends to help. He says many things in the poem that essentially insults them and accuses them of being savages. They aren’t savages, he just doesn’t understand their way of life. I think that the audience would respond based on the time frame they read it in and also their personal values. While one person may read this and totally agree, another may argue that Donne doesn’t understand their civilization enough to criticize them. I am able to respond to this message by blogging about it on this website.

  14. Alex K says:

    Response questions to poems
    Alex Koetter

    1). “No man is an island..”. I believe the author was trying to say that no person is alone, but connected with all man kind in some way. The same goes for the saying,” it’s a small world.” Every human being is connected in some way and no one has to do anything alone. No one should have to morn alone, hurt alone, be alone and no matter what they’re are people always around us. There can be someone across the world probably going through the same thing as ones self. People just have to realize they’re never alone, and no one can be isolated like an island. It hurts to loose something near to one’s heart and everyone goes through hardships, whether it build character or bring someone down. Everyone is connected, somehow, somewhere.

    2). I think, well this is how I interpreted Donne’s call to action for humanity in this poem: I believe he intended to say there is a bright side to anything, including death. Though I see no bright side to death, he made it sound like people should rejoice when someone passes away. Make it happy rather than morbid at a funeral. Celebrate that the passed person is now in a better place, almost hinting that earth is the horrid place one must manifest before getting to pass into a greater place. It is great when someone dies, and we should all be happy for that person and not wallow in their dismal death.

    3). Living, being alive sounded like the white man’s burden to me, such a burden to live, do everyday things. Any chore was morbid, like a burden, but why only the white man’s burden? The white man’s burden seemed to be all the things a white man would do everyday back then. “To serve your captive’s needs..”. This sounds like someone tending to a slave’s pleading? Like a plantation owner would tend to his workers, probably a black man as the worker.

    4). Kippling made the white man’s burden sound like a burden, to have to deal with all the bad things he’s done, to have to carry that burden, the knowledge of his past actions, like they will haunt him forever, and that will be his burden. It may be a burden in one’s eyes, but not in another. The white man may not see all his past actions, whether they are shadowy, or just commands onto others, as a burden to carry in his thoughts for the rest of his life. Maybe in some one’s eyes his actions would be a burden to remember and have to contain for life.

    5). Kippling probably thought a black person would read this and agree, maybe he thought a person descending from a plantation owning family would read this and disagree, it all depends on whether the reader interprets the poem in the way he meant them to. The audience also depends on whether they were ever taught about how life was back then. As a 21st century reader I believe he was honest to the deepest levels of a man’s heart could be. I believe he may have done shadowy actions in the past and carries them like a burden.

  15. Morgan Z. says:

    1. I believe that when he says no man is an island that it means we are all together and equal. He is saying that we are all here to help each other and that we should treat everyone the same. Also that we are all the same with the church and under God, and that God sees us all the same. God does not judge on skin color, wealth or social status.

    2. I believe the call to action was equality. He is trying to convey that all humans are equal even if we do not look, talk, or worship the same way. He is also saying how we are all together, that if someone loses someone, we all lose that person. Also that a passing in life could be a good event because you are reaching heaven and God.

    3. The white man’s burden is all that is bad and imperfect. He is saying how the white man believes that everything and everyone who is not like them is a burden. Also he is trying to show how people are put down because of other people’s high standards and beliefs. Also events that are a force of nature and cannot be stopped is a burden to them.

    4. The reward for caring the white man’s burden is reaching heaven or God. Also it shows you are a better person because you can accept what is ‘beneath’ you. It also showed that you were a good person. Also that you were accepting and caring. It also showed you had a good heart or that you did not care what other people thought and just thought of everyone as equal.

    5. Kipling directed the poem to the United States to assume the task of developing the Philippines. He wanted to show how some people thought of other people as burdens and mistakes. It also showed how segregated social classes were. Today I believe the poem does not apply as much as it use to. I believe we are treated mostly equal.

  16. Spencer L says:

    I think that the controlling metaphor in Donne’s meditation can mean many different things. What I believe it meant is that nobody can be independent their whole life and never have to worry about depending on somebody else to help. Everybody has hardships in their lives, either if it’s a loss of somebody or a depressing time, we all need people to lean on sometimes. If a man were pretend like he is his own island then eventually overtime maybe loneliness and sadness of being not a part of everyone else. No man I an island also means to me that men and woman were meant to work together and as a team.
    Donnie’s call to action for humanity is to secure yourself, by making our recourse to God, who is our only security. I think this means that humanity has many things to learn about themselves. I Think by securing ourselves that means that we can grow closer to god and the truth. If you feel like your life is going downhill, then to recourse your life is a great idea. I think when it says recourse to god it means to think about what the purpose of your life is and see that god can help you. When you are secure then you are less likely to fail and you have a good understanding of the purpose of your life.
    The White Man’s Burden was a warning to the Americans to pick up the burden of imperialism. And was also meant tell the Americans to take over from Spain. This was the rule of the Philippine islands. After the U.S captured in the Spanish- American war. Many Americans did not like the idea of an empire. This poem was very recognized around 1899. Imperialism was not wanted by Americans at least the majority didn’t want it. What I thought it was is a poem about how white men needed to take the burden off and would do that by picking up the burden of Imperialism.
    Kipling suggest that the “white man” that dear brought wisdom and manhood would happen. What they get is nothing much as it says bring all your hopes to come true. I think that this is very hopeful and something to look forward to. I think that the reward is worth the hard work that our country would go through. I see this challenge as an opportunity to grow as a country. I think that this can help build a relationship between the U.S and Imperialism.
    Kipling thought that everyone would read this poem. And he probably hoped that people would think about it as much as he did. And people did and they formed their own opinions and thought about what it meant to them. A response from the 21st century would be different from 1899 because of the situation. In 1899 the reality of the situation can make it feel more important. A response from the 21st century would probably how they could of dealt with it and it would be different because they already know how it is going to turn out. I would respond to this message like some spectator and state my opinion about how the poem to me meant a couple things about what the Americans needed to do.

  17. gabriella pontoo says:

    Question 1
    Donne’s controlling metaphor “No man is an island” is comparing humans in society to that of an island. Donne states that “every man is a piece of the continent, a part of the main”. I believe he is insinuating that everything one man does affects another or the country as a whole. An island can stand alone and develop by itself, whereas for a human being it is almost impossible. He also states that “any man’s death diminishes me, because I am involved in mankind.” In the beginning of the paragraph he said every man was a piece of the land connected to the continent (society). So if one person were to pass away, that land would diminish right along with them, affecting the continent as a whole. Every death in society matters because we are all involved in mankind, anything one person does affects another in some way, shape, or form.

    Question 2
    Donne’s call to action for humanity was mainly centered around showing how mankind was all spiritually/religiously connected. For example, in the meditation church bells were used as a symbol for death. Donne believes when one dies then a piece of himself and mankind has been lost, he infers that all people are connected through the church. So what happens to one man affects every man as well. All of mankind’s connection to each other is like an open book, and every person’s chapter must also be rewritten and changed, because if one individual dies then the next man’s chapter is changed. I believe Donne’s call to humanity is that we all our somehow intertwined, so we need to be more aware of our decisions and actions. He uses man metaphors throughout the poem to support the idea that we are all part of humanity and we need to be unified as one.

    Question 3
    Kipling’s idea of the white man’s burden was that white man had to “civilize” what they believed to be savages. It infered that imperialism and colonialism was a must that every white man must do for non-western societies. The whites are “obligated” to develop the living of other races, until they live up to western standards. In Kipling’s mind, any society that didn’t adopt western ways were looked at as inferior to western ways. Kipling believe it was every country’s duty to help the poor whether they wanted help or not.
    Question 4
    Kipling suggested that the rewards for converting these “savage” lands to western ways was the use of their resources. This was the main reason for expansion during this age, it was what colonies were based around. Kipling believed that because they civilized these lands, that they had a right to all of the lands resources and raw materials. they were also rewarded in the idea that alot of people were converted to western ways and the western countries reigned supreme. I suppose it was an ego booster for the mother countries.
    Question 5
    Kipling believe that the U.S would read his poem, or any country in general that wasn’t adopting the colonization process. At the time, I don’t think alot of people would have disagreed with him considering the time period it was in. Alot of people probably wanted to colonize the Philippines, it must have had some influence because the U.S began to colonize and utilize other nations resources. As a reader today I find the poem to be kind of racist, unbeknown to him at the time. At the time I honestly believe Kipling didn’t consider himself racist and actually believed that what he was doing was right. But as a reader today I find his view on the world ignorant. He believes that and culture or belief besides his own is ignorant and inferior to whites, which shows a close minded view on the world.

  18. Lauren M 4th says:

    Question 1
    I believe that the controlling metaphor “No man is an island…” means that no one person is isolated from everyone else. Everybody is involved in the future of the society. Also, everyone is responsible for doing their part to support the society and the other people. If a person is unable to keep up their responsibility, then the society will suffer. It also means that if a community lost a person, the loss would be a problem. Basically, I think it means that no person is exempt from doing their part in society. It is impossible to get out of responsibility without completely leaving.

    Question 2
    Donne’s call to action for humanity is that people need to work together to achieve a common goal. People have to help each other and everyone else in the world to improve their societies. All of humanity is connected and the only way to improve it is to join together and share ideas of what works and what doesn’t. He implies that every person is involved in working for their society. He also mentions that when a problem arises, everyone, not just a few people, need to help out. He uses a metaphor involving a bell ringing to call not only the preacher, but the entire congregation to come to illustrate this point.

    Question 3
    According to Kipling, the white man’s burden is to use the resources he has and to share them with the world. It is his job to “help” other countries “less fortunate” than his own. Even if other cultures are prosperous and doing well according to their standards, Kipling believes that if they are not up to European standards, then they are not really doing well. This statement shows the arrogance of European cultures when comparing themselves to other cultures. This also shows a bit of fear on the part of the Europeans because they are afraid of different things. In order to counteract it, they try to put themselves above the different cultures. Because of these ideas, the “white man’s burden” may be more harmful than helpful.

    Question 4
    Kipling seems to suggest that the white man does not receive any reward other than knowing that they helped other countries. This idea is shown in the fifth stanza. “And reap his old reward: The blame of those ye better, the hate of those ye guard.” These lines mean that even though the white man tries to change the other countries, they will only resent it. This fact implies that “helping” other countries should be a reward on its own. Despite this, Kipling still encourages people to work to reform developing countries to be like European and other Western countries.

    Question 5
    I think that Kipling intended this poem to be for white Europeans and Americans. That group would be the most likely to agree with his ideas and want to work towards that goal. The audience would have probably agreed with what Kipling believes in this poem. This was a common attitude during the time period in which this poem was written. However, a modern reader would likely disagree with this attitude. It would seem very ethnocentric around Europeans while today, a more tolerant view is what is acceptable.

  19. Autumn J. 7th says:

    Question 1
    By stating that no man is an island, Donne is saying that everybody is part of a whole. For example, as a U.S. citizen, I am part of the United States. He uses this to demonstrate that everything we do not only changes our life, but it also changes the lives of the people around us. In other words, we are not the only person on earth, and we do have an affect on something greater than ourselves. Donne also uses this to represent how we affect a larger whole. When a person acts, she not only affects herself, but the greater whole of her family, friends, school, and even country. He means that we are never alone, and that we are always part of something bigger than ourselves.
    Question 2
    I believe that the call for action to humanity in this poem is to be thankful for the day in front of us all, because we could be sick and dying. I also believe that it calls men to come and help the sick or the people that “the bell rings for.” In my opinion, it discusses sickness and death through the eyes of the Donne, and this view enlightens us about the depth of these calls to action. They are everyday life reminders that call us to do help us and others. Donne, in my opinion, calls us to do these things for the good of the whole, as he later discusses. Being thankful for the day and helping people when they are sick and dying make us better humans. All in all, Donne describes several calls to action in this poem.
    Question 3
    “The White Man’s Burden” speaks out about the obligation that the United States has to colonize other countries, in this case the Philippines. It discusses a somewhat racist view of colonization, and how we have a “requirement” to help out the “less fortunate” countries. It also represents the need for us to lead them into becoming a successful country. This would include coming in and taking over the people of the area in order to help. The actions taken to help these countries would include total rule. This poem shows this view in a way that leads people to believe they were swayed by racial, “white skin is better than dark skin” way. All in all, the “burden” was the obligation to make “lesser” countries better, and that came along with the threat of disease and death by severe violence.
    Question 4
    In my own opinion, there is not one particular reward for this “burden.” However, the benefit of this “burden” would possibly be the total control of a group of people. Kipling’s view would give power to the United States, and it would also give superiority. These rewards would only benefit the white people but not the colored. Kipling does not give any other examples in his poem, but in my own personal opinion these are the benefits. There are not any other clear rewards of his view that are given in his poem. All in all, the main reward of this view is power and superiority.
    Question 5
    I think the audience that he was trying to appeal to was Untied States citizens or government members that would be very influential in the country. These people would allow his ideas to be moved throughout society, and if they were given by somebody influential, then they would be more likely to be absorbed. I think this audience would likely look at this view with speculation, because most Americans believe in the freedom of others. They would also be uneasy about this way, because it is racist, and many frown upon it. As a 21st century learner, I would also frown upon the message he is trying to send. It is irrational and not of my personal beliefs. All in all, Kipling’s view is simply not high-quality or socially correct in my opinion.

  20. Josh C says:

    Donne’s Meditation “No man is an island..” means to me that every person belongs to the human race. It means a man cannot stand alone, he must unite with mankind. It also mean that aspects of life such as tragedies, successes, deaths, and happiness affect not just the person who experiences them, but it also affects the people around him. These experiences should also help the person who experienced them learn from them, along with everyone who is affected around him.

    Donne’s call to action for humanity in this poem is to appreciate life and the people who share it with you. It is a call to embrace circumstances in ones life and to learn and grow from them. It states that a man should become better by facing difficulties in his life and that one is not complete without his fair share of trails and tribulations. It also puts forth the idea that a man should not only learn from his difficulties and mistakes, but from those around him who experience similar things. Lastly it embraces death as a way of cashing in on the afflictions one has attained in his lifetime.

    In my opinion, the white mans burden was his superiority to peoples of other regions and races. He felt that it was the white mans duty to conquer these lands to make these people “civilized.” In his opinion this was the right thing to do. He felt that this action was not taken, the people would live a lesser life not being able to enjoy the luxuries they did.

    I believe Rudyard felt that the rewards of having this burden was the right to dominate the lesser peoples. This domination would allow them to impress their culture on these people. Along with taking over a culture of people, other benefits would follow such as new governments, land, and the use of the lands natural resources. Eventually the “white people” would completely run the country and sometimes even resort to extreme actions such as segregation and slavery.

    Kipling believed this poem would inspire other white people and encourage them in their conquest of the world. This poem was meant to morally reassure white nations and their exploitations of lesser countries. I believe many of the people in his society reacted positively to his poem, dubbing it a truth and a aide to Britain’s cause, as well as many other white nations such as France and England. As a twenty first century reader I see this poem as a justification to the actions taken by his country and his people. Although I do not feel that conquering a smaller nation is a negative thing, I believe that it was not a duty or as he stated “The White Man’s Burden.”

  21. Rachel G. 7th says:

    Question 1
    There can be many different interpretations of this quote and everyone is entitled to their own explanation of it. This quote means, to me at least, that one man cannot control everything in his or her life, that there are some things left up to fate. Also, that he refers to an island and an island is usually thought of as standing alone. Many of mankind wants to stand alone, they feel that if they stand alone then they will be above all others, but this not the case, for not one man can stand alone from the masses. That one person needs others for them back them up, to support them, they need that power of their supporters to help them make it to the top, or to fulfill their dream. If you look in the world today and go around asking normal people on the street, there is bound to be someone who says they feel alone in the world. No matter how much they believe this, it is not true, this quote states just that, which no matter what there is always going to be someone that cares about that person, that everyone is cared for by another.
    Question 2
    Donne’s call to action brings about ones fear of death, of life ending for themselves or for someone they are close to. The exact call to action sentence is “Perchance he for whom the bell tolls may be so ill, as that he knows not it tolls for him; and perchance I may think myself so much better than I am, as that they who are about me, and see my state, may have caused it to toll for me, and I know not that”. This call to action can appeal to many those who have fear or those who this strikes a chord in them that they thought they buried within themselves. For many this will not catch their eye completely at first, for it can be somewhat confusing, but as the sentence sinks in a clearer understanding is achieved. This understanding will spark something in certain people that will urge them to keep reading to see who the bell tolls for. Although at the end of this poem, I was still at lose for who the bells toll, for it can toll for anyone. The main part of this poem that I know moved me to tears, for it made me remember the loss of my loved ones that recently passed away.
    Question 3
    This is a subject that confuses me, for Kipling does not state clearly his vision of the “white Man’s Burden”. From what I understand about this poem, the meaning is how the white man is burden with having to govern the nonwhite people. The burden is something that the white people dislike to have to keep an eye on the nonwhites like a newborn baby, who does not know right from wrong, left from right. This feeling of having to tell them what to do, to believe they are far inferior to the white man, and that they know nothing of the world. This burden justifies the white man’s actions and feelings toward the nonwhites; it gives them, at least in their own mind, a noble meaning to hurt the nonwhites. The white man’s burden is something created in their minds, something that they created within their own thoughts; it does not exist outside of their thoughts. This creates a struggle between the nonwhites and whites, for the nonwhites do not want to be governed by the whites who believe they are superior but are not except for inside their minds.

    Question 4
    This reward Kipling speaks of is the reward of greatness, of superiority of the nonwhites. Also, the rewards of being able to rule over others, to be able have others do the heavy work for them. Some of this reward is not all joyous; most of the reward Kipling speaks of is the rebel of the nonwhites, the hate and blame of the loss of their loved ones. This reward is something they do not wish but is something they know would come, something that is expected from people who, in Kipling’s mind, do not appreciate all that they are doing for them. The fear and cry of the ones the whites protect is their reward, for all they do. They believe this not what they should be receiving as a reward, but a reward of celebration, is what I think Kipling tries to portray within this meaning of reward. One thing Kipling most defiantly did not see is the feeling in the nonwhite’s hearts, the want for freedom, and the intelligence to govern themselves.
    Question 5
    I think Kipling believed people who believed in his vision, in his ideas, people of his status, whites. Much of this audience might have agreed with what is said in his poem, but there can be a slight chance that some of these people would disagree with the meaning and go in a different direction. This does not include the majority at this time, just the minority of those who would dare to stand up for those who have no voice in the world controlled by whites. This message stated before me, is something I see as cruel and heartless as a 21st century leader. I do not see the thought of the nonwhites as human beings, as people who do have thought, who do have their own ideas and innovations that could change the world. Being a 21st century leaders’ does change how I view this idea, because of how much the world has changed, but still this passage does not account for human element of whites, who are not perfect. In fact, whites are people who make many mistakes maybe more than nonwhites ,they believed to be superior to others around them just because of their skin color.

  22. Madeline R. says:

    Question 1
    In this piece of work called Meditation XVII written by John Donne, Donne presents many complex and thoughtful ideas. In this meditation, Donne presents an interesting metaphor to the readers. Donne begins by describing that “no man is an island, entire of itself…” (Donne). In my opinion, Donne tries to convey that every man is a part of all mankind. Additionally, this quote appears to tell the reader that man cannot sustain itself without the rest of humanity. Near the end of the quote, Donne seems to tell the reader that every loss of a human life generally affects mankind. In this quote, I believe that Donne illustrates every man as a part of the collaborating population or mankind.
    Question 2
    Throughout this work, Donne focuses on mankind. In the last section, Donne presents a call to action to all mankind. Donne tells the reader that the afflictions of man are treasures. Also, Donne explains that if a man has many afflictions and therefore many treasures, those treasures are useless to that man. However, Donne tells that if the afflictions are given out to others, the treasure is redeemed. In a less connotative manner, Donne additionally explains that man must “take upon us the misery of our neighbors” (Donne). Basically, Donne directs mankind to seek out suffering people and to try to comfort them.
    Question 3
    One of Rudyard Kipling’s most controversial poems is entitled “The White Man’s Burden.” According to Kipling, the “white man” is the United States. Additionally, he considers the white man’s burden to be the duty of the United States to cultivate the region of the Philippines. Kipling believes that this duty is a necessary action to take. My opinion of what the “white man’s burden” is does not greatly differ from Kipling’s thoughts. In this poem, I believe that the white man’s burden can generally apply to most nations. I believe that some nations think they have a “less civilized” country or group of people that they need to help.
    Question 4
    “The White Man’s Burden” by John Kipling describes a reward that the “white man” obtains after he carries out his “burden.” At first, the reward is explained as “the blame of those ye better, the hate of those ye guard” (Kipling). Yet, as the poem continues, the rewards of this “burden” change. Kipling tells the reader that the rewards include a laurel and “ungrudged praise” (Kipling). Kipling appears to believe that as the “white man” fulfills his duty, he will receive only complaints from the people that he helps. However, Kipling believes that the “white man” will receive praises in time.
    Question 5
    In Kipling’s poem entitled “The White Man’s Burden,” Kipling directs it to a specific audience. Kipling wants his poem to be read by leaders in the United States that could directly affect the Philippines. The United States might have reacted to this poem by ignoring Kipling’s plea. Additionally, the United States could have been angered by a foreigner’s demands and advice. As a 21st century reader, I am slightly shocked by this article. I cannot believe that a person like Kipling would see other people or countries as inferiors to him and nations similar to the United States.

  23. fields93943 says:

    I believe the statement “no man is an island”. Everyone is truly a part of something. If you live in America, you are part of the American society. No one can change this. I think some people think they are an island. This is an untruth. Everyone is linked to someone and something one way or another. No one in brought into this world without a connection, even if they are alone. Distance can be put between a man and the world, but he is still in it.
    I think there are several calls for action stated within the poem. One is compassion for our fellow men. The ringing of the bells signified the passing of another. “Who bends not his ear to any bell which upon occasion rings?” It is human nature to mourn with those who mourn. It just needs to be done in a more open manner. I also believe another call is to turn towards God. In the poem, he mentions that God “is our only security”. I believe this to be true, and feel it is stressed throughout the poem.
    The so called “burden” we are called to carry, according to Kipling, is to colonize the rest of the world. I do not agree with this statement. “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights…” In our great nation we believe all are created equal. We do not believe in superior races or ethnicity. Forcing our culture onto those some believe to be inferior would go against everything our county stands for. We know from history, that colonizing, in the end, turns against the mother country.
    I believe the reward he thinks they receive is the hate and loathing of those you have conquered. “The blame of those ye better, the hate of those ye guard…” This suggests just that. It supposes the blame placed on us for being the “better” people. It also notes the hate of those we would receive for invading their land and taking prisoner the people. This is quite an awful thing to want. I could never imagine why someone would want such distrust and hatred as a reward.
    Kipling seemed to be writing to a specific audience. I believe he was writing to an audience that has power. Maybe people who could use their power to accomplish this task. I don’t think it would be highly regarded by those who read it. Unless you have an overwhelming desire for imperialism, I don’t think it would have much appeal to the average reader. As a reader today, I’m quite put off by it. I disagree with the idea of America taking up this “burden” of an empire.

  24. Amber R says:

    “No man is an island…” To me this was trying to show the people that no one is alone, and they we all have each other to look and turn to. It seems to be persuading in a way to convince the people in believing in one another. No one person can make it through the world fully alone and withdrew from the rest of the human population. This would benefit each and everyone of our people. We all need someone to vent and be able to trust with our problems. Not many of us are lucky enough to have this already.

    Donne’s call to action in this poem is to be grateful to the people you share your life with. It shows to me that man should not only learn from his own mistakes but also from the ones that are made around him as well. You must face life head on, no matter how hard it seems. As you know nothing will ever be as easy as you wish or want it to be. He looks as death as a release from the bonds of earth and everything in and on it. Nothing is concrete in life and many do not see that.

    The “White Man’s burden” was in my opinion the hardships that he faced in life. Some of these included Famine and death. In order to get rid of the “burden” I feel Kipling believed that you simply must die, and be set free from it. As I see it he was very religious and believed as many others you had to go through the harsh and bad times on earth to get to your final destination. While many may disagree, I strongly believe this myself.

    He suggests that each man is eventually set free of his burden. In his oppinion the man has grown up and is now free of all his peer judgements. This symbolizes the faith he had in God. The Burden is Simply going and surviving “Hell” on earth, and then receiving the reward of reaching Heaven. Many may of reached this at a younger age and set free of all suffering from famine and such, before some others.

    I believe Kipling was intending this poem to be read to the white population of his own area. It was meant to reassure the whites of their country. Even though some may have disagreed with his decisions, not very many this was. I believe more agreed with it and considered it as a accurate way to look at their populations interests. As a twenty-first century reader i see this as a positive was to see the actions taken by Kipling’s country. In my oppinion, this opposes the actual “White Man’s burden.”

  25. maria thompson says:

    When Donne states ‘No man is an island’, he is implying that no person is meant to be isolated. A person cannot survive on their own being separated from other people. An island has a sustainable ecosystem that is managed by its sole self; it does not rely on other islands to thrive. However, a person relies on others for basic needs of life. Yes, they can provide food, shelter, and water for themselves, but it is proven that humans need to feel love. Consequently, one person cannot feel love as there is nothing besides themselves around them. Donne is also stating that one person is not as important as society as a whole. A person on their own does nothing aside from helping themselves; in a society people help each other. Therefore, it causes great advancements in their society.
    Donne is asking for people to put more faith in god. He believes that society is swaying from their religious beliefs. He says that misery is becoming evident in everyone’s life. As time has progressed he says that it seems to have increased. Also, that humans toil upon misery and find misery in misery itself.
    Kipling’s poem revolves around a white man’s burden, hence the title. I found to believe that he was stating that the white man’s burden was power. White people were always trying to reconstruct other societies. They believed that they were superior, and that it was their duty to civilize other nations. People from other ethnic backgrounds were considered below them. They believed that it was the right thing to overtake their societies, and to reconstruct them. They did that because they thought that it would therefore be bringing them up to a civilized state in which they could negotiate with them.
    I think that Kipling believed that for carrying their burden, the white men did not receive a reward. Rather they became hated and were shamed by the people they were trying to help. Also, that those that once followed their leaders now scrutinize their actions. Native people were obviously going to dislike the white men. They were invading a nation, and reworking their lifestyles. Therefore, most societies would most likely revolt. Resulting in blame upon the white people’s leader , because they failed to be successful. So in conclusion, Kipling believes that they had good intentions and were doing what was best, but did not receive recognition or appreciation.
    Kipling believed that those involved with colonization would read his poem. Plus, he thought that they would realize their impact on the Americas. I have a completely different viewpoint then Kipling after reading his piece. I don’t think that it was right for them to colonize the Americas. There were people already there. Yes, they were not the same as the white people, but that does not mean that they were lower than them. It means that they had a different way of life. I believe that the white men messed up trying to control and reorganize other nations they came in contact with. They did not do it to help the people, they were just power driven greedy people.

  26. Mary Kellan C says:

    In Donne’s poem Meditation 17, he uses an analogy that says “No man is an island, entirely of itself; every man is a piece of the continent, a part of the main”. To me this means that no one person makes up everything. It make something work or happen many people have to be involved. There are many people that make up the world, not just one race or one gender. He later on goes to say that if something thing occurs to one individual in his community it would also affect him because he is a part of that community. It is similar to a domino effect, if one domino falls, then the rest are going down with the first.
    To me, Donne’s call to action is for everyone to understand that everyone is affected. People are intertwined. Meaning that when one hurts, everyone feels that hurt. In the section where it states “…whom the bell tolls, it tolls for thee”. The bell refers to when someone passed away they would ring a bell to signal the death. So he is stating that when someone would die and hear that bell, he would feel death a little bit too.
    The white man’s burden was to go and evangelize to those who looked different because of skin color. It was to make “savages” into good Christians. Because of their arrogance, the white men felt that what the natives were doing was not good enough. They white men felt like it was their duty to those whose continent they were invading, to make the people more like them. At first look, they were uncivilized, uneducated, did not dress properly and had no religion. So a “burden” was placed on these white men to save the pagan people.
    Throughout the time, they have gained wisdom and knowledge. Each experience has allowed one or more other beings to gain the religion and knowledge they tried to offer. Peers gradually praised those who went to help. All the years of unnoticed labor was finally recognized. Even though attention was not the reason for going to Africa, it was given. There was also an international recognition for helping out and reaching out to those by sharing faith.
    Kipling most likely was writing to the wealthy class in Great Britain to get their attention to aid those who need them. He wanted those who lived nicer lives to leave the luxury and live rugged and rough. A good percent of the people probably thought he was crazy. Thought it was a great idea, but they did not want to be the one to go. “Oh my neighbor can handle that”. Why would anyone want to leave an easy going life to go somewhere they would have to work hard for, and live with people of whom they don’t approve? Reading poems is probably my weakest link. But as a 21st century reader, when I got to a part in which I could not comprehend, I used my resources of the internet and found websites that helped me.

  27. Emily M says:

    In the poem “Meditation XVII”, by John Donne, there is a controlling metaphor. It says, “No man is an island”. This can be taken many different ways. When I first read this, I thought of no one being isolated or maybe even different. It continues to say, “entire to itself; every man is a piece of the continent, a part of the main.” This leads me to believe that Donne thinks that we all lean on each other. Also, he could be talking about our blending of cultures, languages, arts, and other more material things.
    At the very end of his poem, John Donne says, “if by this consideration of another’s danger I take mine into contemplation, and so secure myself, by making my recourse to my God, who is our only security.” I think that this is Donne’s call to action. He never says “you” or “humanity”, but he speaks of himself. I think this is a subtle way to hint to everyone else of what to do. He’s being the leader of the pack.
    Throughout Rudyard Kipling’s poem “The White Man’s Burden”, he often speaks down the white man. It sounds like he thinks that the white man is perhaps the richest in the world. He speaks as if white men have no troubles. He thinks that the white man’s life is perfect. In this poem, he is telling the white man to lower his needs and give to those who could use it more than he.
    In the fifth stanza of Kipling’s poem, it says “Take up the White Man’s burden—and reap his old reward”. It continues to talk of people’s reactions and emotions to what the white man had done. The sixth line says, “(Ah, slowly!) toward the light” I think this is referring to the white mans death. It could also be speaking of all the other people that the white man has blamed, hated, and cried over. Either way, Kipling is reminding the reward is woe and death.
    I think Kipling thought that all people would read his poem. I think he thought that the black or any other race besides white men would read it and agree. I also think he thought that the white man would read it and feel a burden to do what the poem is saying. When I first read this poem, a few initial thoughts popped into my head. I almost felt offended by all the things Kipling said the white man had. Then, when I started thinking, I realized that a lot of what he was saying is true. Also, since it was written in 1899, some of these things might have been truer about certain white people compared to the lowest of the black man.

  28. brannon53937 says:

    Question 1:
    John Donne’s quote “No man is an island…” symbolizes the fact that no one is completely alone in the world. Every one is affected by society, and everyone’s actions and words, however big or small it may be, affect other people in the world. If someone in the community dies, the entire community suffers. That person had a purpose and now they can no longer help or harm those around them. It takes everyone in the community doing whatever job they do for the community itself to function. When a person is upset and keeps to themselves and tries to isolate themselves or become an “island”, they are of no use to the rest of the community or themselves. On the other hand, if that person is suffering in misery, and shares their misery with others, they can heal quicker and the community as a whole can adjust to the situation, therefore being useful.

    Question 2:
    Donne’s call to action is to seek God. It is also to take responsibility for oneself. He says God is the only security. Through him we must humble ourselves and find salvation. Donne says in this poem that God has ways to knock us down when our heads get too big; and that we should learn to keep ourselves grounded on our own.

    Question 3:
    In Rudyard Kipling’s poem The White Man’s Burden, Kipling made it seem as though the white man’s burden was their obligation to teach other, less fortunate countries their culture. This poem comes across as though Kipling feels that any other culture is inferior to the culture he is familiar with. That shows his ignorance and arrogance. “The white man’s job” is not to take away the culture of other countries. How would we feel if people of a different culture had the same mentality and thought they were obligated to teach us their culture? What if they thought the culture they new was the best and ours was inferior? We would all feel differently about “the white man’s burden” I assume.

    Question 4:
    I am not quite sure what Kipling suggests the white man will get for taking up the burden.

    Question 5:
    I think Kipling meant for missionaries and people of high authority in the United States and England to read this poem. I believe he meant this poem to be a sort of calling of action. I think he believed when missionaries read this, they would go to “less fortunate” countries and spread our culture. I don’t think that is what really would have happened had those people read this poem. I believe that many people would have had the same response as I did. When I read this poem I saw Kipling, not as someone helping other countries, but as an ignorant, arrogant, narrow sighted, non-Christian who didn’t have respect for other peoples’ beliefs.

  29. Megan B says:

    Megan B.
    Question One
    In the poem Meditation XVII, by John Donne, many metaphors are used. One significant one, “No man is an island…” could be perceived in many different ways . I think Donne is trying to say that no one man is completely self sufficient and independent. Everyone belongs to something bigger than itself. It can be compared to a church body. In a church, there are individuals, but they are all part of a greater whole that allow for the church to run. No one man can run the church by himself, because that would not work. So, the phrase is saying that no one person is isolated and completely self sufficient. People need other people to aid in survival. He is saying that being completely independent, like an island is compared to a huge lad mass with numerous states, does not work for people.
    Question Two
    Donne, the author of Mediation XVII, displays a call to humanity throughout his poem. I think the call to humanity is to do everything in the name of God. Throughout his writing, he states that God is “our only security.” He is saying that all that matters is God. But, he also has another call to humanity. I think he is also trying to get the point across that when one man dies, others may remorse, but it should not bring everyone down. He is saying that we need not all be in misery. He says that one thing happening to one person affects everyone. He refers to the Catholic Church and the baptism of a baby, because they baby is now connected to the church body which he is also connected to. He says “when one man dies, one chapter is not torn out of the book, but translated into a better language.” I think overall, he is trying to say that we are all connected somehow, and when something happens to one, we must not let it affect us so much.
    Question Three
    The White Man’s Burden is having to teach other people how to act and live the right way. The ‘white man’ had the responsibility of teaching the natives how to live like they were Europeans. Europeans were colonizing third world countries, and these people would not act correctly. So, as white men, they were obligated to teach others everything there was to know about their culture, government, religion, and so on. I agree with the author that it is a burden, because as he goes on he states how the people are angry at what the white men are doing. If people are constantly fighting back, I think it would be a heavy burden to carry.
    Question Four
    I think that the author is trying to suggest that the white men do not get any reward. The entire poem is about all of the terrible things that happen. The only “reward” the men get is “The blame of those ye better, The hate of those ye guard.” Blame and hate of native peoples is not necessarily a reward, more of a punishment. They are doing all of this work and all they receive is hate and disgust of the people they are trying to help. I do not think that is much of a reward, rather than a punishment. I think that is why it is called a burden, because there is no reward.
    Question 5
    I think Kipling was thinking all of the citizens would read his poem. If I were a native reading the poem, I would probably respond negatively. It makes the natives seem like they are a huge burden, and the white men are unfortunate for having this burden. If I were a white man who carried the white man’s burden, I’m sure I would agree with the author in the fact that it was a huge burden. But I also think I might be a little angered, because Kipling did not say many positive things about the white man’s actions. As a 21st century reader, I think the white men helping the natives was a good thing to do. But, I also think they could have done it in a nicer way. Considering it wasn’t really for the natives benefit, I think they needed to be a little more considerate. They should not have focused on themselves so much, so I think it is fair that they did not get rewarded. It seems like all they did was complain.

  30. Megan D. says:

    Question 1
    He is comparing them saying that no one is alone. Everyone has somebody in their life. He could be putting that metaphor to the fact when someone dies. For instance every man is going to die in their life not matter what. Therefore they are not alone in this situation. He puts this metaphor to different meanings. I understood the meaning as if islands are alone, surrounded by nothing but water. In the passage he talks about dieing so i figured he was referring to poeple are not alone when they die.
    Question 2
    I think Donne is saying how valuable life is. I think that people in that time period do not realize these things and to be able to live life they need too. For instance when he talks about people dieing all the time and how their alone. People don’t realize these things and they need to survive life. People don’t care that the bells are being rung and about their dignity. People in general just don’t care and he is saying how people need and people are forgetting these things.
    Question 3
    Their are several meanings behind this so call “white man’s burden.” To me the white man’s burden was basically white people colonizing over and over again. White men needed to colonize and explore the world. It was something they were passionate about. The white people were always doing this, he states telling the white men to bring their best breed to colonize somewhere. The United States was trying to help the Philippians become something. The burden could deal with the financial need of the colonies back then. The burden could also be taken as the support of the non-whites. Lastly, it could be taken as white men trying to help the non-white people.
    Question 4
    This reward can be taken as colonizing over the world. They would have a new territory of their own. This would allow the whites to help the non-whites have a better life. This is not considering them being nice to the non-whites. The white men would make a profit over this territory. They would be taking over something new. The white men got their best to colonize in this new place.
    Question 5
    I think that Kipling wanted the the other white people to read it. He’s saying the burden that the white people have carried on them. Now the the other whites will have to carry it on too. He’s trying to persuade to colonize other territories. It can also be taken as a constant battle to colonize. I think the people would have mixed fillings about this. They could feel that their was exploitation of the non-whites. At the same time the whites may feel as if they need to go colonize more. Reading this i think white people have a passion to colonize, obviously and they wanted to make a better life.

  31. meghan2009 says:

    Meghan G.
    4th period
    September 17, 2010

    Question 1
    The controlling metaphor, “No man is an island”, in Donne’s Meditation 17 means in my opinion that we are affected by even stranger’s decisions. He says that every main is apart of a continent, a part of the main. This is true because each person in the world is classified by their group, whether they be Americans, Canadians, Christians, doctors, or students. We are always classified in at least one group. Donne says that because he is a member of the Catholic church he is affected when it baptizes a child. This contributes to his metaphor because even though he may not know the child or have any link to it, he is apart of that group so he is being affected. This would be similar to saying that if you are an American citizen, then you are affected each time a new person is granted citizenship to the U.S.

    Question 2
    I believe Donne’s message to humanity is that people should be in touch with God. It is more important to be spiritually connected to God,rather than putting up a fake front that you believe in God. He says that God has a hand in every translation. He is saying that God is involved in everything that happens on Earth. I believe that when he says, “ His hand shall bind up all our scattered leaves again for that library where every book shall lie open to one another” he is referring that God will take all the scattered Christians and take them up to heaven.
    Question 3
    According to Kipling, the white man’s burden is to take care of the black men. He tells them they should send their children to “exile” to care for the new-caught, sad black people. The white men can take the natives’ resources to make a profit because the black people weren’t smart enough to use their resources first. Kipling says this shall be their reward. To add, the white man must make the wars stop, get rid of hunger, and cure sickness. In return, the white men only get the blame and hate of the people they rule over. And when the white men return they will have the judgement of their peers.
    Question 4
    The reward Kipling suggests the white men receive, is antagonism. He states that the people who are below them will only blame them. For example, if there is a drought and no crops grow, the natives can blame it on the white men who are governing them. He also says that the people the white men guard will only hate them. If the natives feel like the white men are guarding them better, then they might get angry with the white men, On the other hand, if the white men are doing a poor job of guarding the natives, then that could upset them also. Another reward the white men may receive is the judgement of their peers. If the people who they were connected with disapproved of their actions, then they might be ostracized.

    Question 5
    Kipling wrote his poem for the U.S. in 1899. It was an appeal to them to assume the task of developing the Philippines, recently won in the Spanish-American War. If I was a reader in that time period, I probably would have agreed with it. Even though the slaves had been freed, white people still believed that they were better than everybody else. I would have agreed with Kipling that it was the white man’s burden to take care of the natives because they just weren’t smart enough to do it for themselves. As a 21st reader today, I totally disagree with his poem and viewpoints. No race is less intelligent than another. I believe our intelligence level depends on the resources we are given. While most white people are given an education, many other races can’t afford to give their children a proper education.

  32. dayoub92580 says:

    The controlling metaphor, “No man is an island,” in John Donne’s Meditation 17 means that no man is in isolation. Every man plays his/her role in society. No matter what role someone plays, the miseries and triumphs of the world will affect them in some shape or form. Donne is also saying that no man can stand alone. Human beings rely on each other for survival. There are always people and spirits there to help and guide us through our life. We are not totally alone; we are part of the human race that was created by God. He states that we are all interconnected, and someone else’s loss is a loss of our own. In the same sense, someone else’s death is a death of our own. “No man is an island” is a powerful phrase that helps convey the human need for each other and the need of cooperation in order to have a successful society.

    Donne’s call to action for humanity in Meditation 17 is not something that is seen in America everyday, and should be inflicted on today’s society more seriously. I feel that he is calling Americans to be more sympathetic in general. For example, when someone dies that you know of, be sorrowful and sad that the human race lost an important life. In other words, Donne is saying to be less self-absorbed. He is saying to show respect towards the human population because in Donne’s words, “No man is an island.” Donne concludes the poem by suggesting that God is the only being that can ensure our existence beyond this life. He is calling us to turn our lives over to the Lord, so we can live eternally with him in heaven.

    In my opinion, the “White man’s burden” is the evangelistic ways of the world’s general upper class. It refers to the way that America must become imperial and introduce the ways of modern civilization to the lower class throughout the world. In Kipling’s era of time, the Europeans thought of themselves as superior, and thought they were obligated to spread their “superior” ways throughout Africa. They thought it was their responsibility to enforce their culture and Christian beliefs among the savages of the world. The people of European ancestry generally had more power to act for the betterment of others than those who weren’t. They generally had more chances for education, and more political clout than the natives. In turn, the white man’s burden they carried was the imperialistic attitude that their society was better.

    The reward that Kipling suggests that the white man gets for carrying his burden is the hatred from the natives that they are trying to educate. As Kipling states in his work, ” And reap his old reward:The blame of those ye better, The hate of those ye guard–.” He says that the gift the white man will receive back is disdain and ungratefulness. Kipling is convinced that the world will in turn thank the European evangelists for imposing their society on the natives. But, the reward that the white man will receive now is hate. He believes that the foreigners will not be grateful for the Europeans acts of kindness. Overall, the reward that a white man will get for his/her imperialistic ways is hate and resentment.

    In my opinion, Kipling intended his poem to be read by the white Europeans. He intended for them to read this because it would make them start to think about being imperialists for Europe. Because of the practices and culture in Kipling’s era, the readers of this poem probably would of agreed with his ideas. It was almost ideal for Europeans and other higher power countries to seek power over foreigners. As a 21st century reader, I disagree with Kipling’ views. I do not think that America should evangelize in other countries. Morally, though, I do feel responsible to help other countries with education and medicine. I know it’s wrong to sit back and watch people suffer and die with diseases like malaria when a few mosquito nets, a little easily manufactured medicine, and yearly treatment of the water supply will wipe those diseases out. In turn, Kipling’s poem is very relevant to his time era, not the 21st century because of the culture differences between the two times.

  33. Emily H. 4th says:

    The controlling metaphor in “No man is an island…” is comparing a man to an island. It is saying that no man is alone or isolated unlike an island. An island is surrounded by water and separated from the rest of the world. A man is a piece of the whole, connected to other men. While the world does not weep if an island is lost men will weep if a man is lost. There is a piece of every man in each person, so when someone is lost a piece of everyone is lost. The island however is completely severed from the other land.
    Donne’s call to action for humanity is that each person needs to help one another as to make sure that no man feels like “an island.” He wants humanity to be kind to one another and build each other up. By giving our neighbors strength to show them that they are not alone because we are here by their side we can help them. We need to support each other in all that we do, allowing our sad neighbor to lean on our shoulders when they are hurt or sad. He wants us to protect each other from the harsh dangers of the world outside. By helping each other and supporting each other through everything we can overcome the pressures of the world. As long as we stand together no one will ever feel alone.
    The white man’s burden was to “save” or “help” everyone in the world. Everyone who was not Christian, in their eyes, needed to be saved. The white men thought, “Oh, you cannot support yourself properly for you do not know how to properly use your resources.” So they tried to help the other people thinking that the other people can’t possibly help themselves. The white men believed that it was their duty to help the people whose land they conquered. They believed that these people needed to be saved for they did not worship God, but they believed they had to help these people since these people didn’t know any better.
    The reward that Kipling suggests is what they get from the earth. By conquering the people to help them they are able to reap the land of its treasures such as gold and other minerals. They also gain the reward of thinking that they are saving people even though they are only hurting them. Their main reward is still what they get off the land. They love the riches of the land in which they can farm and grow food, or mine and get money. Either way these people gain something from their selfishness.
    Kipling thought that his people, the colored people would read this poem. The colored people might have thought he was right and it was time that they stood up instead of staying back and allowing such to happen. Maybe they thought Kipling was crazy for writing such stuff. If I lived in those days I would probably think he was crazy too. I am proud that he could write something so strong telling of how the white men are ruling without saying those words. I do not know what today’s readers find so repugnant about this poem. I think that this poem shows strength and that is something I admire.

  34. ben f says:

    Question One
    When John Donne says, “No man is an island.” He is talking about the fact that the entire Catholic Church is a hen she baptizes a child, that action concerns me; for that child thereby connected to that body which is my head also, and engrafted into that body where of I am a member.” To me this represents that anything the Catholic Church does, it does as a whole. And anything that someone of the Catholic Church does represents the church itself.
    Question Two
    The call to humanity is that is their duty to colonize countries, and help that country to develop, while benefiting from its hard work. Donne uses phrases such as, “to seek another’s profit, and work another’s gain.” And, “Fill full the mouth of famine, and bid the sickness cease.” To me this means that’s it’s a call to help others, yet, it seems he doesn’t expect humanity to do it for free.
    Question Three
    The white man’s burden is colonize Africa and to help put an end to all the problems there, yet still take from the country of Africa as they do so. The author uses one particular stanza,
    “Take up the white man’s burden; the savage wars of peace;
    Fill full the mouth of Famine; and bid the sickness cease;
    And when your goal is nearest; the end of others sought;
    Watch sloth and heathen Folly; bring all your hopes to nought.”
    To me this is his plea to the white man of other countries to come colonize Africa, but to help it as well.
    Question 4
    The reward the white man gets is firstly the profit of another’s country but there’s more to it. I don’t know exactly what it is, but I think it goes more on a pride level. The country that colonizes Africa has power, or is proud that they tamed the wild country I don’t know for sure but the main reward for the white man is something along a statues, or title, or pride.
    Question 5
    I believe that Kipling would think that America would read it and try to help them. I don’t think that the audience would have responded because they saw more work into helping Africa, then getting actual resources from them. The only reason Africa was ever colonized was because of the gold and precious stones found in the country. I have to respond to this on a pure practical level. Unless we would be getting a great amount of goods from that country, then I would see no reason to colonize them.

  35. Catie B. says:

    Donne’s quote meant that no man can exist by himself. Everyone needs a support system. Every person, no matter who they are or what they do, needs other people in their life. This is like the quote “raising a child takes a village.” No one can do everything and find everything they need in life alone. Everything in life requires the assistance, guidance, and encouragement of other people. Everyone came from somewhere, and everyone becomes who they are because of the people around them. No man is an island because of the fact that they cannot be isolated from the world and function successfully.

    Donne’s call to action was that people need to turn to God because he is the only solution to the problems of the world. He said that God “is our only security.” In my opinion, this means that He is the only thing that is certain and constant in every Christian’s life. Donne is imploring to the reader to secure his or herself and find solace in God. He believes that God is the only one who can rid us of our illnesses and of our trials and tribulations. The previous line suggests that when someone has a problem, it is the Christian man’s duty to assist in bearing that someone’s burden. Donne is suggesting by this passage that the only way for humanity is Christianity, and turning to God.

    Rudyard Kipling suggested that the burden of the white man was caring for society. He was saying that the white man is obligated to rule because they were the best “breed” of people. He made the white man seem to be the all-powerful ruler over humanity, but they didn’t live the easy lives of kings because of it. In his opinion, the white man worked harder than anyone else to keep society in check and make sure the world was moving in the right direction. Specifically, in this poem, he was saying that it was the job of the United States to develop the Philippines because the people of that nation could not do it on their own, simply because they were not white. It was very obvious that he was a supporter of British colonization, and of the British idea that the white man had to be the guiding force behind every aspect of society. In short, the white man’s burden is to shepherd the minorities.

    In Kipling’s words, the reward for the white man’s burden was “The blame of those ye better/The hate of those ye guard/The cry of hosts ye humor.” I think this was a very sarcastic statement. He basically meant that the white man got no appreciation to all the wonderful things he did for the world. The people whose lives the white man supposedly makes better will blame him for their problems anyway because they, in Kipling’s opinion, are too ignorant to know what is good for them. People that the white man supposedly watches over will hate him because they do not see that what the white man is doing is for the better. He was making a generalization that the white man is the only one who knows what is in the best interest of society. He is the one that sheds the blood and sweat and tears. Kipling was saying that he believed that society would not properly function without the work of the white man, and that it was a thankless task.

    I think that Kipling believed that non-whites would read his poem. Reason being, he went into great detail about all the white man did for society. He explained how every issue falls on the white man’s back, because he is the only one who can find a solution. I think it was a very propagandized piece of work. He wanted to plant the idea in the heads of those who are “ignorant,” in his opinion, that if it were not for the white man, they would be nowhere, doing nothing. The poem, at first glance, seems to be directed at the white man, and it is almost like God talking to a white man. It is what Kipling wants minorities to think that God would tell the white man. He wants there to be some sort of order in society in which the white man leads and everyone else follows, because obviously that is the natural order of things.

  36. Ryan Z says:

    I believe that the controlling metaphor, “No man is an island” in Donne’s Meditation XVII means that he believes that every man is part of something bigger and not alone. His point is that all men are part of one great landmass, and there are no islands. Humans must stand together and be united, with no man greater than another. It shouldn’t matter how rich or popular people are, everyone has problems. I believe that no person is better than another. God created everyone equally. Therefore I agree with “No man is an island” because we’re all part of the human race.

    His call for humanity is for people to stop worrying about being perfect. He wants people to enjoy life and understand that no one is perfect. Along with no one is a better human than someone else. Again, everyone is created equal. I believe that he is trying to stress the fact that we are all part of the human race. His call for action is that he wants people to be united. However, this will never happen.

    I think Kipling is trying to say that the “White Man’s Burden” is to basically make all other civilizations like them. One can say the White Man’s society is the right one. Or that its more civilized, which are all just viewpoints. I disagree completely with the White Men trying to change other societies to be more like them. They don’t understand that there is not just one way to live life. Those African societies are just fine without the interjection of Europeans. Besides the Europeans don’t care bout the natives anyways. They just care bout gold and diamonds so they can be rich and feel good about themselves.

    In my opinion, I think Kipling thinks that the reward for all of this is that the White Men get to spread their society and ways of life to unfortunate societies. However I don’t know whether or not Kipling is against the “White Man’s Burden”. I honestly believe that Europeans’ first priority wasn’t making native life better, but for personal gain. I think Europeans cared too much for gold and diamonds than the natives. However, they used that as an excuse to go ruin the Africans life. All the Europeans did was create chaos in Africa. They didn’t make their lives better at all.

    I think the poem was meant for the Europeans. It was made for the Europeans to feel good about themselves when they change the Africans lives. This contradicts the first poem’s message where it tries to say all humans are equal, they’re all part of the human race. This poem is implying that Europeans are better human beings than the Africans. I think the Europeans should of just left Africa alone. You do your thing I’ll do mine mind set. Europeans at the time had to expand and expand and get more and more. They were never happy with what they had. As a 21st century learner I respond to this poem as this person thinks he is so much better than others because of his social status, and that is just completely wrong

  37. Cameron P. 7th says:

    1. I think he is stating that every man works together. Nothing one person does doesn’t effect another. We all have to work together, almost like a machine. No matter how small your job or position may seem, it’s very important that you do it. No one is isolated like an island is. People have to work together and support each other because in the end that’s what makes society work. Everyone needs each other to survive and without our friends and family nothing would be the same. So we need to be thankful for the people that we have in our lives because we need them to live the lives we want to live.
    2. I believe that Donne’s call to action in this poem states that by devoting your life to god you will be successful and secure. He believes that by living your life through god, god will help you through anything and that he is all you need. So he is telling the people to devote their lives to god and to what god wants them to do. God has a plan for everyone and a reason for everything. So the people can just turn to god for guidance in rough times or in times when they are lost and not sure where to go next or what to do.
    3. I believe that the white man’s burden is responsibility. He is expected to do his job and to do what’s right. But what if he makes a mistake or takes the wrong path, what does he get? Judgment, he is judged for mistakes and wrong turns but rarely rewarded for success. It’s just the way people are, some may be jealous or some may have no reason at all. The white mans burden is to be strong even in times of weakness, to be a leader and not let people down. This can be a very stressful thing for a man to carry on his shoulders.
    4. He suggests that your reward is nothing less then judgment. You don’t get what you deserve. People will always judge and not everyone will agree with you or what you have done or plan to do. You have to learn to live with peoples hate or disgust towards you because it will never go away. It’s human nature and not everyone will always love you. So you have to learn to stand strong and stay true to who you are because in the end you don’t get the reward you deserve.
    5. I believe Kipling wanted United States citizens to read his poem. He wrote it as an appeal to the United States to assume the task of developing the Philippines. To me it means that the white man’s burden is a stressful job. A job of having to be strong and be a leader. He must take care of others and never show weakness. Men must take care of their families and be their best to set a good example. It is rough for a man to always be a leader but that is the white mans burden.

  38. Amanda S says:

    Question 1
    I think the metaphor “No man is an island” means that not one man is alone in society. He is not by himself. It’s not just one mans job to be responsible for the whole city. Everyone has a part to do in their community. Not one man can say he was in charge of everything. Not one man can say he had nothing to with it.

    Question 2
    I am not sure what the question is asking

    Question 3
    The white mans burden, in my opinion, is the burden the white man has to carry because of all the bad things he has done. I think the author is trying to explain all the things that white men should be ashamed of. He is trying to tell them all of the bad things they have done. All the destruction that they have caused by coming in to their country and trying to take over. I think he wants them to feel guilty about what they have done. So maybe in the future, it won’t happen again.

    Question 4
    I don’t think it is really a reward. I think he was saying the reward was the guilt that they would feel after they saw all the damage that they did. He wanted then to suffer the
    consequences of their actions. They came in and tried to make them like white men. But it really hurt the families of the natives. The white men were kind of like a dictatorship. And now that they have come in, they have destroyed everything.

    Question 5
    I think Kipling thought both white and black men would read this. I think he thought that white men would read it and feel guilty about their actions. He thought that black men would read it and possibly agree with him. I think the white men would have been upset with it but at the same time I think they would realise what they did wrong. I think that black men would agree and possibly help spread the word to other white men who have not read the poem. As a 21st century reader, my response is that I thought it was kind of shocking how open he was about the whole thing.

  39. Darby -7th says:

    Question 1

    I believe that this controlling metaphor in Donne’s Meditation XVII means that no individual person on this planet is isolated from everyone else. Everybody who lives today came from someone else, therefore there has to be some kind of divergence into some kind of human society. For example, it’s like an old quilt, even though some pieces are very alike and some very different, they are all still some type of cloth made into a whole, and without one of the cloth pieces, it wouldn’t be a quilt at all. Everybody has a place in some kind of society, whether it be connecting with similar races or religions, or being a whole new place with new people. A human is still a human, no matter what, and no human is isolated from the others because everyone lives on this earth. Everyone has to have a part to play in the interaction with others to even live on this earth today. Overall, this metaphor demonstrates that there is no possible way a human cannot have contact with another living being, because everyone on this earth is a small part of a huge hole; there is a purpose for everyone here, and that purpose directly involves not being isolated.

    Question 2

    Donne’s call to action for humanity is basically stating that every person counts. He is describing in the poem how you should still take a pause to think about the consequences and the grief of the family for a person you don’t even know. Donne is trying to say that because we are all a part of the same species, we should acknowledge and have respect for every other human being. He is saying that humanity is caring for each other, even if that is a person you don’t know, because that’s just what humans are supposed to do. Donne expressed humanity as just being a good thing. He said that by regarding and respecting that another person’s life has ended, that it just made him feel how lucky he was to be there that day. Donne’s call to action for humanity basically stated that humanity was a delicate, yet good thing that respected others for what they were and how it relates to himself.

    Question 3

    According to Kipling, and especially myself, I think the white man’s burden is the burden of having too much responsibility over the non-white people. Because most white people, at the time that Kipling lived, believed that white-skinned people were superior to all others, so the burden would be to have to deal with all those people that they now “rule”. They would have to teach a new culture all over again, as well as the hassle of teaching a new language. The burden would also include new diseases from the other people as the white claimed superiority. Also, the teaching of how white people ruled were obviously passed down to the white children, who would grow up knowing they were better than someone, as stated in the poem, and how that would completely change the view of whites. I think the burden also includes that white people’s views of each other would change as they took over blacks, due to the reactions of racism at the time. People think that the blacks were the only ones that had it hard during this time, but as it states in the poem, the white people also had a burden to deal with because of their actions.

    Question 4

    Kipling stated that a result of the white man’s burden included having the prize or being superior, yet when it really resulted in the judgment of one’s peers. Throughout this entire controversy, it actually turned the white people against each other for power. Because the white man carried this burden, they resulting in being a wise, yet a cold people. Because the burden included taking over, Kipling stated that the white man would end up actually being judged by one of his same race. This is even worse than the burden itself, because not only was it hard to carry the burden, but now the people who remained at the same social status ended up judging each other anyways. The white man’s prize for carrying this burden was not all bad, because they still did gain the “laurel”, or the wreath of victory for declaring their race superior. This was probably the only positive thing that came out of carrying the burden, because then the white people had the right to say “I’m superior to you”. That little sentence was what the hard work for carrying the burden was for in the long run.

    Question 5

    Kipling expected white people to read his poem. He wanted them to realize that they are not doing entirely good for themselves, because they had plenty of consequences for the actions they committed. He wanted them to realize what they were, and the fact that just gaining victory was not the best prize for all the effort the white people had to take over the blacks. I think the audience at Kipling’s time would have totally disagreed with him, telling him he didn’t know what he was talking about because they were living the “great” life of a white person. The white people of our time have already realized what we have done wrong in the past, and easily come to terms with the poem because they had already known the consequences of the actions the white people made in the past. I personally respond to the poem with complete understanding, because not only are some black humans still suffering today from what happened in the past, but some white people have terrible lives because of the way they treated the black people. I do think it is much easier to answer this question now than what it would have been back in Kipling’s time because my opinion would probably be the same as those around me. This is just like today, as most of the U.S. population today is Christian, so my opinion of the white/black controversy would have a great chance of being the same as most of the people that were around me. But, all in all, Kipling’s poem does mostly state the truth of what the white people had to deal with, which is not a usual topic contemplated because everyone’s main focus was on what the black people had to go through. It made complete sense to me.

  40. Steven W. 7th says:

    I feel that Donne is trying to convey multiple ideas in the line, “No man is an island”. Primarily, he is portraying that all humans need each other. This could mean that we need each others experiences, feelings, and concepts to unite humans as a whole. I also feel that Donne is trying to say that we all need to care for people and to reflect on past events in our lives so that we can all feel similar emotions in order to relate better among each other. We can also create great relationships and experiences with each other that we will cherish for the rest of our lives. By doing this, humans from different cultures, nations, and beliefs can come together and unite as one people. In my opinion, this is a very influential quote because it integrates many ideas and concepts about humanity.
    I think Donne’s call to action for humanity is that we as humans need to come to peace with each other. I think this would be the greatest accomplishment for mankind because of the extraordinary measures that would have to take place. However, this is extremely unlikely and almost without a doubt will never happen. This is shown when Donne points out, “As therefore the bell that rings to a sermon calls not upon the preacher only, but upon the congregation to come, so this bell calls us all.” This also supports that Donne is trying to convey a society in which the people all come together as a whole from all backgrounds and cultures to live in unison. Donne also says that people need to reflect on past events to construct positive emotions and ideas in their present day lives. This reminds people to thinks about where they are derived from and to not take any thing for granted.
    In his poem, Rudyard Kipling wrote about the white men having to civilize any uncivilized people in order to meet their standards as a person. This is what I understood the concept of the white man’s burden. There are many examples of this shown in the poem such as, “Take up the White Man’s burden– In patience to abide, To veil the threat of terror.” This quote shows that part of the white man’s burden is to intimidate the uncivilized people by establishing dominance and demanding needs. This was definitely a technique the British used to colonize and expand their empire. Kipling later says, “Take up the White Man’s Burden– Have done with childish days–.” I take this information as Kipling degrading the history, methods, ancestors, and people of India and that their ways of life are inferior to those of the British and Western European.
    The reward that the white man would get is imperialism. Imperialism is essentially conquering other lands by force. With imperialism comes revolts and many other altercations. This is shown in the quote, “Take up the White Man’s burden– The savage wars of peace–.” In this case, the Indians are trying to stop the British forces from colonizing, but this doesn’t change the minds of Great Britain. Ultimately, India is held under British rule for decades until in 1947 when India declared its independence by using non violent protests anchored by Mahatma Gandhi. This shows the devastating scar that imperialism can have on an innocent civilization.
    I think that he was writing this poem intended so the King of England would read it. I think that he wrote this to show his own country what a disaster that the had created in the eyes of the Indians. I think he writes about all the Indian’s misfortunes on purpose to show Britain’s that colonization is rather a negative than a positive thing. I am sure that the reactions of the Britain’s would be shocked and upset that someone from their own country would write such a poem. However, I do think that some people would look at rationally and consider that what they were doing is not such a great thing after all. Today, I see this poem as a very disrespectful yet true poem. I realize that this did not just happen in this occasion, but throughout history and even still today in parts of the world.

  41. rowland53994 says:

    September 27, 2010
    Question 1:
    The controlled metaphor in Meditation 17 is relating an island to a man and how a man cannot be separated from a whole like an island. A man is a part of a whole whether that whole is a congregation, neighborhood, community, or a society. A man cannot exist by himself, but must coexist in the society. A society is like an organism. When a part of the organism is detached the whole organism is affected in a positive or negative way. For example, if a serial killer is removed from a society, both the immediate health and the future of the society are changed in a positive manner. The future for a society has infinite possibilities. When a society changes, even faintly, the infinite possibilities become limited affecting even one man or the society as a whole.
    Question 2:
    The call to action for humanity is an important message to be learned. The call to action for humanity is asking for one person to do a good deed for the society. This action will affect and inspire other people to produce more good deeds. This effect is like when a person throws a pebble in a pond and ripples occur. If more pebbles are thrown in, the ripples grow stronger and turn into waves. Every action has a reaction. Some people believe that their actions only affect themselves, but that is not true. For example, smokers do not realize the influence of the habit of smoking is on the people around them or the influence of secondhand smoke on their loved-ones from the burning cigarettes. The call to action for humanity is to get people beyond their own selfishness and consider the well-beings of others.
    Question 3:
    The white man’s burden is to take care of the minorities of the world. The poem is saying that the white man needs to provide help to the minorities in the forms of food, shelter, and other necessities. The white man must also provide medical care and attention to the sick, diseased, and injured of the minorities. The minorities cannot take care of themselves. Another part of the burden is that the white man cannot give up on these people no matter how difficult the journey gets. The white man is humane and cannot just leave these people behind to suffer. The white man does get discouraged to help because of the laziness and stupidity of the minorities which can sometimes jeopardize the wellness of the white man. However, it must not stop them because it is the burden that has to be carried on.
    Question 4:
    The white man obtains no positive reward for carrying the burden. When the burden is almost fulfilled, the laziness and stupidity of the minorities cause all the achievement to vanish. Which sets back the white man’s plans, but he continues on to help even if that reward was not met. The white man always continues on roads that lead nowhere for now. The white man loses men on the journey to help minorities, but it is a sacrifice the white man must be willing to make to try to safe others lives. The white man is also hated by the minorities for entering their life and their ways. Their stupidity and pride blocks them from seeing and taking the help from the white man. This just results in the failure of the white man making it a burden.
    Question 5:
    Kipling had high hopes for his poem. His poem was intended to be read by aristocrats. Aristocrats were wealthy white people who could influence an idea one way or another. Aristocrats were the ones who helped the minorities and provided the necessities they needed. Kipling’s poem acknowledged the work the aristocrats were putting forth for the minorities. The poem also encouraged them to not give up on the minorities, and they kept on helping the minorities. In today’s society, the message in the poem is somewhat old fashioned. I believe that we should teach the minorities how to provide and take care of themselves. And that it is up to them whether or not they want to learn. I do not think we should keep providing for them if they are not grateful or abuse the help given to them. I believe that it is no longer a burden for the white man but an opportunity for the white man to help and a choice for the minorities to accept, learn, and be grateful for the help provided to them.

  42. Aly C. says:

    1. I think what Donne is trying to say in Meditation 17 is how people are more referred to or feel like a ‘whole” rather than an ‘individual’. When he states: “No man is an island” he is really meaning that people in our world are more of a whole and rely on each other instead of just relying on yourself and being your own person. This could relate to anything, such as cultures or beliefs. Sometimes people feel as if they have to act as a person who is not themselves or their own personality because that is the way the ones closest to them act. If there is a person included in a group that believes in one thing, this person will most likely just “follow the crowd” and be a part of a whole, rather than being themselves. Now, comparing this to a larger group or ‘mass’ instead of a smaller portion, it will in a way, seem the same. As in, every man in America is called an American. They are a part of a whole and this is where they belong. No matter what race or gender, you are a part of a whole.
    2. What I think Donne’s call to action for humanity is that he is trying to get a message across to people. He is trying to make people understand how you need to be your own person and not someone that somebody else makes you. We are in much need of diversity because of all the similarities between people. The way people act as wholes instead of an individual can make things difficult in the long run. As if things were to go wrong for one person, it’s like everything would go wrong for everyone who either follow that person or are a part of the same whole as someone else. Donne tries to explain how people are merely a piece of a larger puzzle, but in reality, people need to realize that individuality is important and always needs to stay alive.
    3. I think that “The White Man’s Burden” was that some people are superior to others, but still must help the inferior out. This meaning that even though the superior may make their own way and live a better life than the ones below them, they still must think about and have pity for the inferior. They should help others rather than holding to oneself. This may seem like a burden to the superior, which is why Kipling’s whole poem all sums down to the white man’s burden. It could also refer to the fact that whites are better than blacks and “higher up on the social ladder”, therefore meaning that whites are better than blacks. This leads to the fact that it is a burden for whites to feel pity for the blacks and must not be selfish in a way. The White Man’s Burden can be perceived in many different views, but I feel as if this is what Kipling was trying to get across.
    4. I feel as if Kipling suggested that the “white man’s reward” was the way other people see you. If you are a person who is not selfish and helps others rather than holding to yourself, like I said in paragraph 3, then others will see you as a ‘role model’ instead of a greedy person. Kipling stated in his poem that with the reward comes “the easy, ungrudged praise” and “the judgment of your peers!” This to me means that you will be judged by your peers depending on how you act and treat others. Sort of like it is a burden to have to deal with the stress and consequences of not doing the right thing. Yet, if you do the right thing, everything will turn out good in the end and others will see you as a great person.
    5. I think Kipling thought that his audience would be anyone who could possibly be misguided in the ways he is trying to explain. This was for the people who have to suffer the “burdens” of having to deal with others. On the other hand, I think it sends out a message to those people who struggle that can help them understand how to fix their problem. This fix is simply by thinking of others, just like the saying: “treat others the way you want to be treated.” I feel like the audience would respond to this poem in a positive way and would be grateful for the wisdom Kipling has given to them. As a 21st century reader, I feel like this message was truly helpful and meaningful to many struggling people out there. There are many who have burdens just like the ones described in this poem and I feel as if Kipling has made these people feel like they are not alone and there are ways to fix this issue, and be rewarded for it in the long run.

  43. dunn53833 says:

    Question 1
    In the powerful metaphor, “No man is an island,” John Donne conveys to us that man depends on one another. Donne is trying to say that no one person can stand alone and be independent from the rest of society. Every person’s actions affect another person in some way and no person can act without her actions having consequences on another. Donne could also be trying to say that people should not be so single minded and think only of themselves when in reality, everything that they do will somehow affect those surrounding them, and those effects could either be positive or negative. No one individual should try to take matters into her own hands without first consulting others and thinking about the consequences. An underlying message in this meditation could also be that people are meant to be in many different relationships with other people and not be separate from the world surrounding them. Not only does this metaphor speak of man in general, but it speaks about the type of person that John Donne is. By saying “Any man’s death diminishes me, because I am involved in mankind,” Donne gives the impression of being a compassionate person and a community oriented person. His focus seems to be centered on what an individual can do for the community, not for himself.

    Question 2
    Donne implores humanity to become more compassionate, less selfish, and more involved in the community and with each other. By speaking of how the birth of a baby and the death of another man affect him because he is connected to everyone, Donne asks humanity to be more aware of the community. Humanity also needs to become less selfish and less concerned with themselves above all others. People should not ask what a certain religion can do for them, but rather what they can do to improve and help others through that religion. Though Donne seems to be referring more to the community of the Catholic Church, I find that these concepts can be applied in any religion or faith, any country, or another community. I interpreted that Donne is calling humanity to action to create peace by working together and being compassionate and involved. By being less self centered and reaching out to others, the world can improve and humanity can grow and strengthen.

    Question 3
    In the poem “The White Man’s Burden,” Rudyard Kipling describes the white people’s burden as that of improving everyone else. He tells about the white’s superiority and their need to control others and seemingly less cultured and less educated civilizations. By opening the poem with, “Take up the White Man’s burden– Send forth the best ye breed,” Kipling gives the message that the best of the whites should travel to other places of the world and conquer and develop them in order to help them. Very strong implications about the superiority of whites are prominent throughout the poem. This poem gives off the impression, to me at least, that the goal of the white man is to conquer the entire world because they believe themselves to be far superior to any other races or cultures. However, the message intended to be given by Kipling seems to be that white’s do their best to help others grow and become as educated and similar to them.

    Question 4
    The poem does not clearly give a reward for the burden the white man must carry. However, I think this poem suggests that the white man will be rewarded with power and control over the places that they take over. When the whites conquered other places and set in place a form of government and way of life, they took away the power and freedom of the natives. By making the major decisions without the consult of the natives, the whites gain power and control over the areas that they have conquered. In return for exerting energy, money, and effort, the white man gains power and high status in the world. If taken differently, this poem could also suggest that the white man gains self satisfaction and pride in thinking that they helped another culture grow and develop. In reality, the white man earns no direct material rewards for carrying their so called “burden,” but they do get to control other areas to add to their prosperity as well as emotionally feel as though they are making a contribution to the world.

    Question 5
    Kipling definitely seems to have geared his poem more towards the upper class in America and prominent figures such as government officials and religions leaders. The English could also have read and approved of “The White Man’s Burden” because of the control they had over many different places during that time period. In the same time period America was also beginning to exert more control over different areas of the world and make their presence known. His audience would most likely have agreed completely with the implications of the duties that the whites have. However, as reader in the 21st century, this poem seems to be very closed minded and arrogant. I was slightly shocked at the implications of white superiority while reading this because in today’s culture, this belief is generally looked down upon and considered arrogant. I also see this as slightly insulting to whites because they thought so highly of themselves and were so closed-minded in regards to the cultures and education of other civilizations.

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